the impact of police in schools

Early Punishments Can Have Lasting Impact for Some Students | PBS NewsHour | June 26, 2012 | PBS: "“In fiscal year 2011 ... 330,000 non-traffic Class C [citations] were handled in the municipal and justice of the peace courts for juveniles,” Fowler said.

And because Texas adjudicates less serious “classroom cases” in municipal and justice of the peace courts – rather than in juvenile courts that attach confidentiality protections to the proceedings – the punishment likely won’t stop there for Rollins.

He may have to list the conviction going forward on everything from college and job applications to the forms requesting a driver’s license with the state of Texas.

It’s all part of a sweeping zero tolerance movement in schools that Fowler says started in the last few decades and has created a “school-to-prison pipeline.”"




This video gives a good overview of many issues in Texas's growing use of citation and harsh punishment. The Appleseed report mentioned in the video is here: Texas' School to Prison Pipeline,  and this is an excerpt:
"The media and public policy debates surrounding school crime in the 1960s—and continuing through the next decade—triggered a growth in campus security planning and increased pressure to have a police presence in schools. The public’s fears about “heightened youth violence” far exceeded actual juvenile crime statistics or documented accounts of schoolbased violent outbreaks requiring law enforcement intervention (see Appendix, The Genesis of the Myth of the Blackboard Jungle). Still, by 1978, one in 100 surveyed schools reported having a police presence. In the 1990s, this practice became more widespread. Media accounts of isolated deadly school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High School in Colorado (1999), fanned public fears of “gun-wielding disaffected youth” and shifted the public and policy dialogue from school crime to school violence. This shift in focus led to an increase in federal funding for School Resource Officer (SRO) programs—and school districts in Texas, and other parts of the country, embraced the concept of SROs in schools as way to prevent “another Columbine from happening here. 
"The Genesis of the Myth of the Blackboard Jungle" appendix concludes:
Congressional hearings almost always follow high-profile school shootings, and yet—with all this attention—we are in no better position today to discern the reality of school crime than we were in the 1950s. Nor have the “get tough” sanctions enacted in the 1990’s helped to address the problems that lead to school crime and violence. A true understanding of school crime is rooted in reliable data leading to research-based, field tested solutions.
This blog addresses the fact that schools have grown powerful by the repeated extension of compulsory attendance laws that bar families from meaningful interaction with schools. Compulsory attendance has placed a hugely troublesome legal tool in the hands of a now large bureaucracy and just having this ability has often prevented schools from adapting to the children and families they should be serving. There is no incentive to develop communication with families, much less begin to actually engage and learn from them.

The Factory Model 
Professional educators do not "get" what the factory approach is all about:
Search Results factory schools — Joanne Jacobs: "I’ve heard the schools-as-factories argument before and found it unpersuasive. The average American never has been a factory worker — and few factory workers needed much education until recently. Furthermore, if we’re educating for compliance, we’re doing a lousy job of it." 
Many see our huge incarceration rate, unmatched in the industrialized world, as necessary since we have so many uncompliant people, but many now say its the new Jim Crow.

Funny,  even management gurus in Forbes grasp the factory model and its impact:

The Single Best Idea for Reforming K-12 Education - Forbes: "To decide what is the single best idea for reforming K-12 education, one needs to figure out what is the biggest problem that the system currently faces. To my mind, the biggest problem is a preoccupation with, and the application of, the factory model of management to education, where everything is arranged for the scalability and efficiency of “the system”, to which the students, the teachers, the parents and the administrators have to adjust. “The system” grinds forward, at ever increasing cost and declining efficiency, dispiriting students, teachers and parents alike."

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